During the five decades followingBritain, France, Spain and Portugal lost many of their possessions in the Americas. Britain and the Thirteen Colonies[ edit ] Main articles:
During the five decades followingBritain, France, Spain and Portugal lost many of their possessions in the Americas. Britain and the Thirteen Colonies[ edit ] Main articles: Thirteen ColoniesAmerican RevolutionAmerican Revolutionary Warand United States Declaration of Independence After the conclusion of the Seven Years' War inBritain had emerged as the world's dominant power, but found itself mired in debt and struggling to finance the Navy and Army necessary to maintain a global empire.
The British Parliament 's attempt to raise taxes from North American colonists raised fears among the Americans that their rights as "Englishmen", and particularly their rights of self-government, were in danger. Froma series of disputes with Parliament over taxation led to the American Revolutionfirst to informal committees of correspondence among the colonies, then to coordinated protest and resistance, with an important event inthe Boston Massacre.
A standing army was formed by the United Coloniesand independence was declared by the Second Continental Congress on 4 July Formal acts of rebellion against British authority began in when the Patriot Suffolk Resolves effectively abolished the legal government of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and expelled all royal officials.
The tensions caused by this would lead to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April Britain recognised the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by the British possessions to the North, Florida to the South, and the Mississippi River to the west.
Haiti became the second independent nation that was a former European colony in the Western Hemisphere after the United States. Africans and people of African ancestry freed themselves from slavery and colonization by taking advantage of the conflict among whites over how to implement the reforms of the French Revolution in this slave society.
Although independence was declared init was not until that it was formally recognized by King Charles X of France. Spanish American wars of independence and Latin American wars of independence The gradual decline of Spain as an imperial power throughout the 17th century was hastened by the War of the Spanish Succession —14as a result of which it lost its European imperial possessions.
The death knell for the Spanish Empire in the Americas was Napoleon's invasion of the Iberian peninsula in With the installation of his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne, the main tie between the metropole and its colonies in the Americas, the Spanish monarchy, had been cut, leading the colonists to question their continued subordination to a declining and distant country.
With an eye on the events of the American Revolution forty years earlier, revolutionary leaders began bloody wars of independence against Spain, whose armies were ultimately unable to maintain control.
BySpain had been ejected from the mainland of the Americas, leaving a collection of independent republics that stretched from Chile and Argentina in the south to Mexico in the north. Spain's colonial possessions were reduced to CubaPuerto Ricothe Philippines and a number of small islands in the Pacific, all of which she was to lose to the United States in the Spanish—American War or sell to Germany shortly thereafter.
Portugal and Brazil[ edit ] Brazil was the only country in Latin America to gain its independence without bloodshed. For thirteen years, Portugal was ruled from Brazil the only instance of such a reversal of roles between colony and metropole until his return to Portugal in His son, Dom Pedrowas left in charge of Brazil and in he declared independence from Portugal and himself the Emperor of Brazil.
Unlike Spain's former colonies which had abandoned the monarchy in favour of republicanism, Brazil therefore retained its links with its monarchy, the House of Braganza.
India onwards [ edit ] Main articles: Colonial India and Western imperialism in Asia Vasco da Gama 's maritime success to discover for Europeans a new sea route to India in paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce.
The next to arrive were the Dutchthe English —who set up a trading-post in the west-coast port of Surat in —and the French. The internal conflicts among Indian Kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands.
Although these continental European powers were to control various regions of southern and eastern India during the ensuing century, they would eventually lose all their territories in India to the British, with the exception of the French outposts of Pondicherry and Chandernagorethe Dutch port in Travancoreand the Portuguese colonies of GoaDamanand Diu.
This was the first political foothold with territorial implications that the British had acquired in India.
Clive was appointed by the Company as its first Governor of Bengal in After the Battle of Buxar inthe Company acquired the civil rights of administration in Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II ; it marked the beginning of its formal rule, which was to engulf eventually most of India and extinguish the Moghul rule and dynasty itself in less than a century.
They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudal -like structurea See Zamindar in Bengal. By the s, the East India Company controlled most of the Indian sub-continent, which included present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Ruletaking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups.Published: Mon, 5 Dec This paper will examine the impact of 19th century European Colonialism on the Third World.
Firstly I will provide a definition of the terms ‘colonialism’ and ‘Third Word’, secondly I will try to evaluate this term in historical context of 19th century affairs which led to colonisation of Third World countries.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy “uses the term ‘colonialism’ to describe the process of European settlement and political control over the rest of the world, including Americas, Australia, and parts of Africa and Asia.”. In particular, colonialism left very different institutional legacies in different parts of the world, with profoundly divergent consequences for economic development.
In different parts of the world ‘Empire’ took on a very different meaning and although it is not possible to disinherit the past there must surely be some times, looking back on the British Empire and colonialism, when it would be very nice to be able to do so.
The Ottoman Empire was created across the Mediterranean Sea, North Africa and into South-Eastern Europe and existed during the time of European colonization of the other parts of the world. European colonialism began in the fifteenth century, with Portugal 's conquest of Ceuta.
The imposition of colonialism on Africa altered its history forever. African nl0des of thought, patterns of cultural development, and ways of life were forever impacted by .