Introduction Hieratic is the cursive form of Hieroglyphic writing which the Egyptians used for everday writing. Hieratic developed very early in Egyptian history, and remained in use for most documents until around BCE when it was replaced by Demotic. However, Hieratic was still used for religious documents on papyrus until the old priesthood was disbanded.
History of the Greek alphabet Greek alphabet on an ancient black figure vessel. There is a digamma but no ksi or omega. Etruscan writing, the beginning of the writing with the Latin alphabet.
By at least the 8th century BCE the Greeks borrowed the Phoenician alphabet and adapted it to their own language,  creating in the process the first "true" alphabet, in which vowels were accorded equal status with consonants.
According to Greek legends transmitted by Herodotusthe alphabet was brought from Phoenicia to Greece by Cadmos. The letters of the Greek alphabet are the same as those of the Phoenician alphabet, and both alphabets are arranged in the same order. All of the names of the letters of the Phoenician alphabet started with consonants, and these consonants were what the letters represented, something called the acrophonic principle.
However, several Phoenician consonants were absent in Greek, and thus several letter names came to be pronounced with initial vowels. Since the start of the name of a letter was expected to be the sound of the letter the acrophonic principlein Greek these letters came to be used for vowels.
As this fortunate development only provided for five or six depending on dialect of the twelve Greek vowels, the Greeks eventually created digraphs and other modifications, such as ei, ou, and o which became omegaor in some cases simply ignored the deficiency, as in long a, i, u.
After first writing right to left, the Greeks eventually chose to write from left to right, unlike the Phoenicians who wrote from right to left. Many Greek letters are similar to Phoenician, except the letter direction is reversed or changed, which can be the result of historical changes from right-to-left writing to boustrophedon to left-to-right writing.
Descendants World distribution of the Cyrillic alphabet. The dark green areas shows the countries where this alphabet is the sole main script. The light green shows the countries where the alphabet co-exists with other scripts.
Greek is in turn the source of all the modern scripts of Europe. For example, the Manchu alphabetdescended from the abjads of West Asia, was also influenced by Korean hangul [ citation needed ], which was either independent the traditional view or derived from the abugidas of South Asia.
Georgian apparently derives from the Aramaic family, but was strongly influenced in its conception by Greek. A modified version of the Greek alphabet, using an additional half dozen demotic hieroglyphs, was used to write Coptic Egyptian.
Then there is Cree syllabics an abugidawhich is a fusion of Devanagari and Pitman shorthand developed by the missionary James Evans.
History of the Latin alphabet World distribution of the Latin alphabet. The dark green areas show the countries where this alphabet is the sole main script.
A tribe known as the Latinswho became the Romans, also lived in the Italian peninsula like the Western Greeks. From the Etruscansa tribe living in the first millennium BCE in central Italyand the Western Greeks, the Latins adopted writing in about the seventh century.
In adopting writing from these two groups, the Latins dropped four characters from the Western Greek alphabet. They also adapted the Etruscan letter Fpronounced 'w,' giving it the 'f' sound, and the Etruscan S, which had three zigzag lines, was curved to make the modern S.
These changes produced the modern alphabet without the letters GJUWYand Zas well as some other differences. Over the few centuries after Alexander the Great conquered the Eastern Mediterranean and other areas in the third century BCE, the Romans began to borrow Greek words, so they had to adapt their alphabet again in order to write these words.
From the Eastern Greek alphabet, they borrowed Y and Zwhich were added to the end of the alphabet because the only time they were used was to write Greek words. The Anglo-Saxons began using Roman letters to write Old English as they converted to Christianity, following Augustine of Canterbury 's mission to Britain in the sixth century.
Because the Runic wen, which was first used to represent the sound 'w' and looked like a p that is narrow and triangular, was easy to confuse with an actual p, the 'w' sound began to be written using a double u.
Because the u at the time looked like a v, the double u looked like two v's, W was placed in the alphabet by V. U developed when people began to use the rounded U when they meant the vowel u and the pointed V when the meant the consonant V.
J began as a variation of Iin which a long tail was added to the final I when there were several in a row. People began to use the J for the consonant and the I for the vowel by the fifteenth century, and it was fully accepted in the mid-seventeenth century.
Several scripts coexisted such as half-uncial and uncialwhich derive from Roman cursive and Greek uncialand VisigothicMerovingian Luxeuil variant here and Beneventan. The Carolingian script was the basis for blackletter and humanist.New research on a limestone tablet found near Luxor suggests that it may have the oldest known example of the ancient precursor to the Roman alphabet sequence on one side of the artifact and the first few letters of another ancient alphabet on the other side.
‘Hieroglyphs for writing and counting gave way to a hieratic script for both writing and numerals.’ ‘The alphabet probably was created soon afterward to translate holy texts, replacing Aramaic and Greek scripts and producing both the hieratic script and the contemporary secular alphabet.’. The Hieratic Script.
The hieroglyphic script remained the anchor of writing in Egypt from the first writing in the late fourth millennium BC until the Roman Period.
Its full forms, following the principles of formal Egyptian art, were suitable for monumental inscription and religious contexts - for the horizon of eternity, in which content expressed and secured what is good. Possibly pre-dates Sumerian Cuneiform writing - if this is true, the Ancient Egyptian script is the oldest known writing system.
Another possibility is that the two scripts developed at more or less the same time. An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that represent the phonemes (basic significant sounds) of any spoken language it is used to write.
This is in contrast to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries (in which each character represents a syllable) and logographic systems (in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit). Hieratic script The Hieratic script was invented and developed more or less at the same time as the hieroglyphic script and was used in parallel with it for everyday purposes such as keeping records and accounts and writing letters.